Pisa is not known who founded the city in Tuscany. Tuscany itself is the country of the legendary Etruscans, but practically nothing is left of them except the ruins of the necropolis. As there are no remains of the ancient Greeks, according to the legend who lived there after the Trojan War. Roman historians casually mentioned (Strabo and Virgil in the Aeneids talked about a huge and powerful city, calling the city "old"), which means that the history of Pisa is lost in the millennia.
Then there were the Romans, but Pisa only strengthened, turned into the largest seaport and became one of the four most powerful maritime republics (from 1085 to 1509 with a short break). He fought the city decently - even participated in the Crusades, attacked Jerusalem, received the right of duty-free trade in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and traded in Africa.
Pisa established control over the largest points of the entire Mediterranean, the Pisa navy seized Carthage, turned Corsica into its colony, beat out Arab pirates from Sardinia and Sicily, and 300 Pisan warships participated in the attack on the pirate bases in the Balearic Islands. Those riches that were seized from the Saracens in Palermo became the basis for the construction of the world-famous complex: the Square of Miracles with the grandiose Cathedral, the famous Leaning Tower (Bell Tower) and the largest Baptismal in the world (Baptisteria).
Then it was the leading maritime power of Europe. The norms of the maritime law of European states were first formulated by Pope Gregory VII in the Pisan Maritime Laws and Customs.
And then began the endless war with Genoa. Italian cities continuously fought with each other, sharing spheres of influence. So Pisa managed to make war with Venice, fought Genoa for a long time and finally gave up to Florence.
Historically, Pisa died a long time ago; the traveler, who saw other dead Italian cities, recognizes this immediately through a special silence on the streets, through the closed shutters of houses, by how sadly the autumn evening descends here, when the wind from the sea sways the flames of the lanterns on the Arno embankment and the raincoat on his shoulders lonely and hurried a passerby (P. Muratov. "Images of Italy").
No, of course, Pisa is not dead. Over the sunset of naval glory came another worldwide fame. Science, architecture and painting - this is what has become the new banner of Pisa.
Pisa, as it should be, has its own saint and its city feast. Holy name Rayneriy (or Rayniy Pizansky, approximately 1115 year of birth, year of death - 1160), the day of his memory and the city holiday - June 17. This is a Catholic saint, he was once called by the townspeople Water (De Aqua), but only because he treated the sick, including holy water. The merchant, who left all his wealth, became a hermit, performed many miracles in the holy land and devoted his life to helping the poor, is now a very authoritative saint in Italy and patron of Pisa. His relics are stored in the main cathedral of the city (Duomo).
It is this famous cathedral on Square of Miracles began to be built at the expense of wealth, plundered by the Pisan fleet from Arab pirates on the island of Sicily. And in 1173 the world famous Leaning Tower (Campanila) was built. "Straighten" this famous tower began almost immediately after construction. And they are still trying to, apply a variety of engineering design ideas, and yet it "falls." But at the same time, it somehow holds on and, let's hope, will stand still for a long time. After all, it resisted during the Second World War, although the entire area, now included in the list UNESCO, was seriously bombed by Americans (then all the frescoes of the famous Cemetery were destroyed - the war ...).
"And yet she spins"
Whether Galileo said it or not is not known for certain. However, it is he - the most famous pizanets. The University of Pisa was founded in 1343, many famous scientists taught there. Galileo Galilei (February 15, 1564 - January 8, 1642) - or Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiti de Galilei - a physicist, astronomer, mechanic, philosopher, was born and lived for a long time in his hometown.
There, under the wall, at the end of the alley
The cozy house sleeps quietly.
In it is Galileo Galilee
Born - marble says so.
His father was a composer, and his great-grandfather-doctor was once the head of the Republic of Pisa. Two boys were supposed to become luteist composers, but only one became, and the second entered the University’s medical faculty, then became a professor of mathematics. The conflict with the Catholic Church ended, as we know, not as scary as for others. He was saved from the fire by repentance before the court of the Inquisition, he was recognized as simply “strongly suspected of heresy,” and spent the last years in something very similar to house arrest. The posthumous rehabilitation of Galileo took place only on October 31, 1992., 17 years ago and almost four centuries later from the day of death.
There are many legends associated with the work of Galileo in Pisa. Allegedly, denunciations from the townspeople were written (the names were dithered) that something was falling on their heads from the Falling Tower, and this Galileo was conducting his experiments. Galileo, however, denied this. But after all so much discoveries had exactly the Pisa period of his life! And the scientist studied free fall, after all throwing balls from the Tower.
- In the end, Galileo, too, denied!
“That's why I always loved Giordano Bruno more ...”
(the film "The very Munchhausen").
Still, it is not good for us to judge and ransfer who, what, and why and denied (although in a wonderful Zakharov film this dialogue sounds not just appropriate, but very modern). It is not exactly known whether an elderly scientist was tortured, but his letter from prison exists, in which he complains of pain in his hip ...
Of course, belatedly, to put it mildly, rehabilitation takes place. But still admitted a mistake, albeit through many centuries. Pope John Paul II convened a whole commission, reviewed the "case" and officially declared the inquisitional activities of the Inquisition in the distant 1633.
And the airport in the city of Pisa is named after Galileo. The asteroid, satellites of Jupiter, craters on other planets, space probes are named after him. And the year 2009 announced the year of astronomy UN General Assembly to commemorate the four hundred years of the first observations of the scientist.
“While remaining a loyal Catholic, Galileo did not hesitate in his belief in the independence of science,” said the greatest scientist of our time, Stephen Hawking, who was born on the day of the 300th anniversary of the death of Galileo Galilei.
And in Pisa were born and worked Nobel laureates in physics Enrico Fermi and K. Rubbia, Nobel laureate and writer D. Carducci, some former presidents of Italy and, of course, many famous Italian singers.
And together with the Nobel laureate Fermi, a certain Bruno Pontecorvo - winner of the Stalin and Lenin Prize. He was born there, in Pisa, on August 22, 1913, and he died on September 24, 1993 in Dubna, near Moscow. Bruno Pontecorvo is the founder of high-energy neutrino physics, and his life is a real detective story. And now in the town near Moscow there is a street named after him ...
One of his brothers became an Italian film director, the other - an English geneticist. And the second wife of B. M. Pontecorvo was the former wife of our wonderful poet. M. Svetlova. It is hard to believe, but people have such fates, it is hard to believe, but such is the fate of the city of Pisa, the city of sea victories, art and science.
There lives a small, but not so drowsy town of Pisa with a population of far less than one hundred thousand people. Lives not only with its rich history. And the University is worth it, and the money goes to the city treasury from tourism, and the “green-lined” river Arno flows ... Marble Pisa no longer lives in a maritime state and military victories. But still she lives.